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Energy generation and usage is considered not only as a mark of progress of a nation but also security of a nation. That is why countries go to extraordinary distance to achieve such a security and everything else becomes secondary in the path of their goal. That is why countries with high oil and gas reserves enjoy good relationship and privileges with powerful nations of the world. Countries who do not have their own oil and gas reserves and who completely rely on import of oil and gas have no choice but maintain a good relationship with oil rich countries despite their difference in ideologies and policies. But with warming globe and changing climate the dependence on fossil fuels is fast becoming unsustainable and countries look for alternatives. It is good news for the whole world especially for nations who depend completely on import of oil and gas because they can develop their own renewable energy sources to lower their emissions. But there is one major difference. Countries who depend on import of oil and gas required to develop only an infrastructure to store and distribute oil and gas, But with renewable energy they have to develop an infrastructure to produce the hardware necessary to use alternative energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal  but also energy storage such as batteries. The warming globe and changing climate have become a grave threat to the plant earth and a threat to lives of entire future generations. It is the greatest challenge of the industrialized world. One can view this as threat or as an opportunity. But it is time to act irrespective of our views and we must act now.

It is an opportunity for scientists and engineers to view energy sources and their applications in a new perspective. It is an opportunity to understand how human activities affect our environment and how not to damage them but preserve them for our future generations while developing new alternatives. Humanity is just a part of a larger environment and any damage to planet earth is at our own peril. It is an ancient wisdom, but we neglected them. When an aboriginal of Australia said “we belong to earth and earth does not belong to us” we failed to listen to them. We(people) became bigger than They (environment).

In pursuit of a new energy source one must be extremely careful in examining Nature and how she operates so that we do not make the same mistakes of the past. As we develop renewable energy as a potential energy source of the future, we should be aware of the life cycle of such a system and their impact on environment. Renewable energy requires hardware that uses exotic metals, catalysts, polymers, new Carbon sources and glasses. As we switch to Carbon free economy, we should make sure that there are no emissions in developing renewable energy sources and if necessary impose Carbon tax on such emissions and, to develop recycling technologies to recycle that hardware safely and environmentally friendly manner. It is critically important issue as we move forward. According to an article published in Chemical engineering News

“The potential quantities of waste are enormous. By 2025, waste batteries removed from electric vehicles will total 95 Giga watt hours, according to an estimate by Bloomberg New Energy Finance. That pile will weigh roughly 600,000 metric tons.

A similar amount of old solar panels will have accumulated by then, according to projections by the International Renewable Energy Agency. IRENA anticipates solar panel waste could reach 78 million metric tons by 2050. And Europe could see 300,000 metric tons per year of decommissioned wind turbine blades in the next two decades, says the trade association Wind Europe.

Each year, approximately 300,000 metric tons of lithium-ion battery waste is generated around the world, says Sheetanshu Upadhyay, an analyst with India’s Esticast Research & Consulting. Most of those batteries come from mobile devices, but that waste will soon be overshadowed by old electric car batteries. Sales of plug-in electric vehicles are expected to surpass 2.6 million in 2020, according to Navigation Research.”

The above data shows the amount of CO2 emission associated with implementation of renewable energy sources soon. There is a potential for large scale recycling industries on renewables, but it will come with a price and environmental issues. Right now, the main problem is the CO2 emission and the only way to tackle this problem is impose Carbon tax on emissions while encouraging industries with low emission technologies. It should be possible for UN to pass a unanimous resolution among the nations to address climate change by imposing Carbon tax uniformly across the nation. By such resolution UN can bring all those countries to the table who are currently reluctant to be a party to the Paris accord. Countries can use “Carbon rating” similar to “energy ratings” currently used for measuring energy efficiencies in appliances such as Heaters and air-conditioners. The lowest emitting technologies will get the highest Carbon rating while high emission technologies will get the lowest Carbon ratings. By using such a method country who are reluctant to act on climate change will be disadvantaged; they will not be able to compete in international market or export their goods to low emitting countries based on Carbon ratings.

 

Recycling PV solar panelsRecycling renewablesRecycling wind turbines

climate change# salinity #ocean acidification # water vapor #flooding # bushfires
Irreversible climate change and human failure !
Increasing ocean salinity, decreasing ocean pH, increasing CO2 concentration and water vapor in the atmosphere will irreversibly change the climate. All the above four parameters are directly attributed to human activity and they are inter-related. Warming ocean and increasing evaporation in some parts of the world, large scale (billions of m3/day) discharge of highly concentrated saline effluent from seawater desalination plants around the world, unabated emission of CO2 and water vapor by burning fossil fuels, ocean acidification by CO2 absorption are directly connected with human activities. NASA is monitoring seawater salinity and water vapor concentration in the atmosphere using special satellites while NOAA is monitoring ocean acidification and salinity of the oceans. They can only provide information and warnings but it is up to relevant government authorities to act. Failure to act will cost lives and the economy and the world is already witnessing them. Oil and gas companies are now using a new slogan (carbon capture and storage or sequestration and reuse) to prolong continuity of fossil fuels. “carbon capture” guarantees continuity of “Carbon emissions”. The real solution is to “decarbonize our air and sea” and recycle Carbon internally in a closed system not “carbon capture or reuse and claim Carbon neutrality”. These projects will exacerbate climate change if we fail to decarbonize air and sea using renewable Hydrogen. An estimated 2000 billion tons of CO2 is already available in air and sea since the industrial revolution and there is no need for any fresh fossil fuel. We are facing “irreversible climate change and human failure to address them in a timely manner”. Bold leadership and political will while monitoring ‘misleading players’ and penalizing emitters by imposing Carbon tax will be the key.
Please check:https://lnkd.in/gv2Ba99

C

WATER AND ENERGY ARE TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN
I always believed one can create energy from water and water from energy. Ancient Hindus believed water comes from fire and fire comes from water, two fundamental building blocks out of five elements that are necessary for Creation.
Water (H2O) is made up of two atoms of Hydrogen and one atom of Oxygen. The structure itself is an absolute beauty because it contains both reductant and oxidant tied up inseparably in such a way it requires enormous energy to separate them. Individually Hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air on combustion. People familiar with Oxy Hydrogen will know such a stoichiometric mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen in gaseous form by water electrolysis generate a flame that can cut an iron piece but leaves water on condensation. Current methods of Electrolysis using PEM (proton exchange membrane) can not only split water into Hydrogen and Oxygen but also separates them simultaneously into two different gases. Fuel cell just reverses the above reaction by combining Hydrogen and Oxygen generating electrical power and heat as a by-product. The basic fundamental facts about water and energy remain the same for millennia.
We are now facing a new challenge of global warming and climate change that is supposed to be caused by the unabated emission of CO2 into the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. The world is now gearing up to achieve net-zero emission by 2050. In my opinion, it is not such a big challenge but the world has neglected emissions for too long. The science of electricity generation using electromagnetism is far from perfect in the sense it failed to take into account the emissions by combustion of fossil fuels. The simple solution is to reduce the oxides of Carbon back into Carbon so that there will be zero-emission. Unfortunately, we never used pure Oxygen for combustion but air because it is readily available and cheap to use. But it generates not only CO2 but also NOx, NO2, H2S, SO2, etc all contributing to air pollution which is now affecting the world by way of global warming and climate change. The CO2 level in the atmosphere has now reached 415 ppm which is only part of the anthropogenic CO2 emission since the industrial revolution. About a third of it has been absorbed by the ocean thus acidifying the seawater. The pH level of the sea is slowly but steadily decreasing making it more acidic. Thanks to the enormous buffering capacity of the sea and such a change are hardly noticeable. But it will soon change the chemistry of the water. It is a complex situation with the changing chemistry of seawater due to absorption of CO2, heat, increasing salinity. Sealevel rise due to melting of glaciers, constant discharge of highly concentrated effluent discharges from seawater desalination plants and power plant cooling towers, etc. Climate modeling in the future will be challenging.
I previously posted an article on “Zero-emission baseload power using only sun and sea”.It has attracted many viewers worldwide especially in my blog/: https://www.clean-energy-water-tech.com.
I have already filed a provisional patent application with IP Australia and I am in the process of filing an international patent application so that I can secure an IP with a value. The technology is based on a couple of well-proven concepts and it will not be difficult to implement them commercially. A couple of multinational companies have already endorsed my process and they are even willing to take part as EPC (engineering, procurement, and construction) contractors.
I am planning to seek donations and contributions from my worldwide audience by way of crowdfunding to secure an IP worldwide so that I can practically contribute my knowledge and experience to address one of the greatest challenges of global warming and climate change by installing a demo plant.
Please watch this blog and my next article will elaborate on my patented technology
CARBON RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY (CRT) also known as RAMANA POWER CYCLE (RPC) FOR A ZERO EMISSION BASELOAD POWER USING ONLY SUN AND SEA.
I invite everyone to contribute by donating to this great cause. Please visit by clicking the following link. It is a small step into lasting solution to our emission problem. It will also help reduce acid acidification slowly but steadily so that we can save our marine species including corals.  By securing a IP (intellectual property) by way of an international patent will enable me to demonstrate the technology by setting up a demonstration plant of 25MW capacity using only SUN AND SEA! Click the following link to participate in the campaign !

Zero emission base load power using only sun and sea

C

WATER AND ENERGY ARE TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN
I always believed one can create energy from water and water from energy. Ancient Hindus believed water comes from fire and fire comes from water, two fundamental building blocks out of five elements that are necessary for Creation.
Water (H2O) is made up of two atoms of Hydrogen and one atom of Oxygen. The structure itself is an absolute beauty because it contains both reductant and oxidant tied up inseparably in such a way it requires enormous energy to separate them. Individually Hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air on combustion. People familiar with Oxy Hydrogen will know such a stoichiometric mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen in gaseous form by water electrolysis generate a flame that can cut an iron piece but leaves water on condensation. Current methods of Electrolysis using PEM (proton exchange membrane) can not only split water into Hydrogen and Oxygen but also separates them simultaneously into two different gases. Fuel cell just reverses the above reaction by combining Hydrogen and Oxygen generating electrical power and heat as a by-product. The basic fundamental facts about water and energy remain the same for millennia.
We are now facing a new challenge of global warming and climate change that is supposed to be caused by the unabated emission of CO2 into the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. The world is now gearing up to achieve net-zero emission by 2050. In my opinion, it is not such a big challenge but the world has neglected emissions for too long. The science of electricity generation using electromagnetism is far from perfect in the sense it failed to take into account the emissions by combustion of fossil fuels. The simple solution is to reduce the oxides of Carbon back into Carbon so that there will be zero-emission. Unfortunately, we never used pure Oxygen for combustion but air because it is readily available and cheap to use. But it generates not only CO2 but also NOx, NO2, H2S, SO2, etc all contributing to air pollution which is now affecting the world by way of global warming and climate change. The CO2 level in the atmosphere has now reached 415 ppm which is only part of the anthropogenic CO2 emission since the industrial revolution. About a third of it has been absorbed by the ocean thus acidifying the seawater. The pH level of the sea is slowly but steadily decreasing making it more acidic. Thanks to the enormous buffering capacity of the sea and such a change are hardly noticeable. But it will soon change the chemistry of the water. It is a complex situation with the changing chemistry of seawater due to absorption of CO2, heat, increasing salinity. Sealevel rise due to melting of glaciers, constant discharge of highly concentrated effluent discharges from seawater desalination plants and power plant cooling towers, etc. Climate modeling in the future will be challenging.
I previously posted an article on “Zero-emission baseload power using only sun and sea”.It has attracted many viewers worldwide especially in my blog/: https://www.clean-energy-water-tech.com.
I have already filed a provisional patent application with IP Australia and I am in the process of filing an international patent application so that I can secure an IP with a value. The technology is based on a couple of well-proven concepts and it will not be difficult to implement them commercially. A couple of multinational companies have already endorsed my process and they are even willing to take part as EPC (engineering, procurement, and construction) contractors.
I am planning to seek donations and contributions from my worldwide audience by way of crowdfunding to secure an IP worldwide so that I can practically contribute my knowledge and experience to address one of the greatest challenges of global warming and climate change by installing a demo plant.
Please watch this blog and my next article will elaborate on my patented technology
CARBON RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY (CRT) also known as RAMANA POWER CYCLE (RPC) FOR A ZERO EMISSION BASELOAD POWER USING ONLY SUN AND SEA.
I invite everyone to contribute by donating to this great cause. Please visit by clicking the following link. It is a small step into lasting solution to our emission problem. It will also help reduce acid acidification slowly but steadily so that we can save our marine species including corals.  By securing a IP (intellectual property) by way of an international patent will enable me to demonstrate the technology by setting up a demonstration plant of 25MW capacity using only SUN AND SEA!

Zero emission base load power using only sun and sea

clean-energy-and-water-techno-1615285536 pdf ebookclean-energy-and-water-techno-1615285536 pdf ebook

It is estimated about 2000 billion tons of anthropogenic CO2 has been emitted and absorbed by both air and sea since the industrial revolution. Therefore, it is clear there is no need to source anymore Carbon from coal, oil, and gas. This basic fact is of paramount importance in solving the emission problem moving forward to a cleaner future. Any fossil fuel-based Carbon should be penalized with Carbon tax to avoid past mistakes of Carbon emissions. This is precisely what the Carbon Recycling Technology known as Ramana Power cycle (RPC) is based on, a technology developed and patented in Australia. It generates a Carbon negative renewable synthetic fuel known as RSMG (renewable synthetic methane gas) using Carbon dioxide and renewable Hydrogen both extracted from the sea. The process extracts not only Carbon dioxide and Hydrogen from seawater, but also pure Oxygen required for combustion along with de-ionized water for steam and condensers. The process uses only sun and seawater to solve one of the toughest problems of global warming and climate change humanity has ever faced. There can be no better technology than RPC that can solve not only global warming and climate change but also guarantees sustainable base load power generation with zero emissions!

The advantage of this process it uses existing power generation technology such as Allan-Fetvedt cycle using supercritical CO2 gas turbine in closed cycle mode. The only difference is it uses RSMG a renewable fuel instead of natural gas and Oxygen from seawater not from the air using ASU. About 99% of CO2 emitted from this power cycle is captured and converted into RSMG internally for recycling and the process continues to generate a baseload power (24 x 7) with Zero emission.

RPC thus solves the problem of CO2 emission, global warming, and climate change without using any fossil fuel and without any emissions at all. There is no need for energy storage like a huge stack of batteries for few hours of storage at an enormous cost. We can set up such baseload power plants at various parts of the world to cater to hundreds of homes, businesses, Cars (both electric and Hydrogen) and to continuous (24 x 7) process industries such as Steel, Aluminum and Caustic soda, etc

The above Zero-emission power plant can also be installed using LNG at the site as a start-up fuel and subsequently substituted with RSMG. The entire plant will be operated using only renewable energy and locally available water source in the absence of seawater. CRT offers the highest electrical efficiency of 65% of LHV of RSMG and above (more than that of the fuel cell) thus offering the lowest Levelized cost of power. An interesting fact about RSMG is it is an ideal fuel for Space X of Elon Musk with highest heating value, with no CO2 or Sulfur compounds and it is a Carbon negative fuel and it is RENEWABLE. CRT will be the first power plant to achieve a circular economy in a true sense setting an example for future energy projects.

CRT will be the first power plant to achieve a circular economy in a true sense setting an example for future energy projects.The biggest advantage of CRT is it does not require CO2 capturing for every cycle because the same CO2 is being recycled indefinitely (except for a make-up of any losses). In my personal opinion all other technologies such as CCS (carbon capture and storage) and CCUS (carbon capture, utilization and storage) will not be the real solution. They are being promoted only for one purpose, namely to keep the existing and operating fossil fuel based plants running till end of their life. Otherwise it will serve no real purpose because there is no concrete use for CO2 on a larger scale. Products made out of captured CO2 will eventually emit CO2 back into the atmosphere at the point of application. It will only help to shift CO2 emissions from one place to another place and eventually into the atmosphere.

The above process can be readily demonstrated on a pilot scale to validate the concept for further commercialization and technology licensing.

# Zero emissions # Renewable Hydrogen # Carbon recyclingReport this

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Status is onlineAhilan RamanPrincipal Consultant at Clean Energy and Water TechnologiesPublished • 2w19 articlesLikeCommentShare

The above process can be readily demonstrated on a pilot scale to validate the concept for further commercialization and technology licensing.

 

When mother nature buried Carbon under the ground by way of fossil, we human beings mined them at enormous cost and added further value by combustion with air converting it into CO2 (carbon dioxide). In fact, we human beings added enormous value to carbon that remained buried (with zero value) for millennia. We were interested in the heat of combustion but forgotten about the CO2 emission. This is the fundamental flaw in the commercialization of thermal power using fossil fuels. Now there is a price to pay. There are only 2 options to overcome this problem.

  • We can completely ignore and ban fossil fuel all together at enormous cost (we have already invested in trillions in mining, processing, transporting and storing) and seek completely a new solution without any Carbon at all. This is unlikely to happen.
  • We can continue to use fossil fuel and generate base load power as we have been doing for decades but capture CO2 and convert it back into fuel so that it can be recycled with Zero CO2 emission. This is certainly feasible.

Many “so called innovators” are suggesting alternatives to fossil power generation using renewable source of energy. These sources were available with us from the beginning of the world as we know it, but they are intermittent. We are used to 24 x7 base load power using fossil fuels.

The real solution lies in using intermittent renewable energy to generate base load power with zero Carbon emission. Renewable Hydrogen (RH) can achieve this goal. In doing so battery can also play a small role but not a major role. Couple of things should happen to achieve this goal.

  1. Capturing CO2 at the lowest cost. It can be best achieved using Oxy combustion of fossil fuel such as LNG (because it is a purified form of natural gas) using Brayton cycle with 100 % CO2 capture.
  2. Generate renewable Hydrogen (RH) using electrolysis using renewable energy source such as solar and wind etc. Technology is well proven and commercially available.
  3. Convert captured CO2 into CH4 using methanation reaction (which is already commercially practised) and recycling CH4 as a fuel to continue the base load power generation as usual. The newly generated CH4 becomes a renewable natural gas (RNG) substituting fossil Hydrogen with renewable Hydrogen(RH). The above described technology is known as Carbon Recycling Technology (CRT) dveloped by CEWT, Australia. The process uses LNG only for a start up and then continue to generate its own RNG to continue the power generation using RH.

The above process is the only economical, commercial and environmental solution to the problem of global warming and climate change. All other methods will be expensive, time consuming with no guaranteed results and are unlikely to happen in the shortest time we have. By scraping fossil subsidies and taxing Carbon @ $100/Mt of CO2 (at least) and offering liberal subsidies to renewable energy the cost of renewable Hydrogen (RH) will be reduced. The cost of renewables is coming down and it can generate RH to the lowest so that CRT can be deployed everywhere. This technology will help achive Zero carbon emission while  a base load (24 x7) power is generated while keeping the Carbon below the earth as nature has done for a long time.

We at CEWT (Clean Energy and Water Technologies, Australia) sco2-power-cycleCO2 cloudcoal power plantoxy-fuel-directly-heated-sco2-power-cycle-flow-diagram-1have the solution (not just theoretical but practically and commercially implementable immediately) and we seek like-minded partners and investors to team up with us so that we can show case the technology and implement them worldwide. ( https://www.clean-energy-water-tech.com)

RSMG is an abbreviation for ‘Renewable synthetic methane gas’ and it is a new form of a Carbon negative synthetic fuel to substitute natural gas. It is synthesized using  CO2 extracted from the sea or from power plant using Oxy combustion CO2 power cycle at the site such as CES, Graz cycle or Allam cycle (using supercritical CO2 as working fluid)  and Renewable Hydrogen (RH) by the following reactions using a renewable energy source.

  1. CO2=> CO + ½ O2 (electrochemical reduction)
  2. CO + 3 H2=> CH4 + H2O (catalytic conversion)

There are other methods too can be applied but our patented process uses a unique method to synthesize RSMG from CO2 and renewable Hydrogen with a heating value (LHV) around 52 Mj/kg.

By using only, the sun and sea water, RSMG is continuously synthesized using continuous renewable energy such as OTE (ocean thermal energy) or geothermal energy or Hydro power on 24 x 7 basis by adjusting the pH of the feed water to acidic and extracting CO2 mechanically or electrically. Such a unit can be incorporated with seawater desalination plants (SWRO).

HCO3 + H+ H2CO3 H2O + CO2 (g).

Ocean is the largest reservoir for clean drinking water, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen and thermal energy and it is imperative that the absorbed CO2 is extracted along with  stored thermal energy in order to restore the warming ocean to pre-industrial state to mitigate climate change. The success of the system depends on the availability of the lowest cost of renewable energy on 24 x 7 basis such as Hydro or OTEC. Alternatively, the cost of renewable energy should be less than $0.025/kwh.

What is RSMG?

RSMG is like natural gas with higher heating value consisting of pure methane and Hydrogen with no other impurities such as sulfur compounds or CO2. It is synthesized using a proprietary technology using CO2 extracted from seawater and renewable hydrogen (RH) using a renewable energy sources such as OTEC or Solar/wind etc. It can be compressed like CNG or liquified like LNG and can be transported or shipped to various destinations. RSMG is a Carbon negative fuel because it uses already absorbed CO2 from the sea and not from burning fossil fuel and it is also renewable because the O2 from CO2 emission is substituted with renewable Hydrogen (RH) constituting synthetic CH4. The purpose of this technology is to recycle Carbon indefinitely at the site of usage and that is why transportation in the form of CNG or LNG is discouraged.

Ramana Power Cycle (RPC)

RPC is a new patent (pending) technology to generate a base load power 24 x7 using a renewable synthetic methane gas (RSMG) with Zero emission. By constantly recycling CO2 in the form of RSMG during Oxy combustion CO2 power cycle we can eliminate usage of fossil fuel completely. Moreover, there will be no need to extract further CO2 from seawater for a specific power plant because Carbon is being recycled constantly. Only further RH will be required to run the base load power plant.

How RPC works?

RPC uses an Oxy combustion power cycle such as CES, Graz cycle or Allam cycle (using super critical CO2 as a working fluid) to generate a base load 24 x7 power. It uses 80% of CO2 generated internally leaving 20% high purity pipeline grade CO2 which is used to synthesize RSMG at site for recycling. That is why RSMG is renewable. Thus, RPC continues to generate a base load power with Zero emission. The electric efficiency of RPC is nearly 70 % and the cost of power is competitive to any other power source. By continuously generating RSMG and recycling CO2 it achieves Zero emission without any requirement of fossil fuel such as natural gas. Thus, the process can decarbonize the fossil fuel industry completely at the fastest time frame. Using 100% renewable hydrogen (RH) in gas turbine is still a long way off to achieve a commercial reality. Currently only up to 30% RH has been tested along natural gas (30:70) and there are several technical problems to be solved with combustor. Moreover, the maximum efficiency in Hydrogen based gas turbine will not exceed 35% at the maximum.

How RPC is different from Allam cycle, for example?

Allam cycle has been selected by IEA (International energy agency) as the most efficient (electric efficiency at 55.4%) Oxy combustion power cycle to generate a base load power using natural gas. It generates 20% pipeline grade CO2 as by-product suitable for CCS applications. It requires natural gas as a fuel. It generates pure Oxygen from air using ASU (air separation unit) by cryogenic process. Air separation is an energy intensive process consuming as much as 15% generated power internally thereby reducing overall electric efficiency of the system. Moreover 20% CO2 discharged from the plant requires long distance piping and sequestration both are expensive thus increasing the cost of power.

RPC uses pure Oxygen generated as by-product of renewable hydrogen (RH) by electrolysis for Oxy combustion of RSMG and to continue to generate a base load power at highest electrical efficiency at competitive rate. Synthesis of RSMG is highly exothermic chemical reaction which generates superheated steam as a by-product which generates additional power using steam turbine thus enhancing the overall electric efficiency of RPC.

RPC is suitable only for large power generation such as 100 Mw and above. The process requires the cheapest and continuous renewable energy source such as OTEC, offshore wind turbines supplemented by PV solar. The main advantage of the system is it does not require large scale energy storage and the base load power can be exported directly to the grid using a substation as it has been done over several decades.

RPC has the potential to decarbonize the fossil economy at the fastest rate than any other methods currently used.

Any power generation technology should be able to meet the following seven criteria in order to be successful.

1.Power availability.

2.Power dispatchability.

3.Zero emissions.

4.Lowest levelized cost of power

5.Potential to decarbonize the fossil economy at the shortest time frame.

6.Potential to Completely eliminate fossil fuel

7.Sustainable and has a potential to achieve circular economy.

RPC can meet all the above seven criteria.

The answer is most likely NO for the following reasons.

It has been established that man-made GHG emissions mainly by CO2 is causing the globe to warm by a phenomenon known as “Greenhouse gas effect” triggering change in climate. Therefore, many are suggesting Hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel to reduce or eliminate CO2 emission. But replacing Carbon with Hydrogen we will only substitute Oxides of Carbon (CO2) with Oxides of Hydrogen (H2O). But water vapor too is a potent greenhouse gas GHG and it may enhance the warming of the globe by a phenomenon known as Feedback effect as explained by NASA and American chemical society (ACS) by the following references:

  1. https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/climatescience/climatesciencenarratives/its-water-vapor-not-the-co2.html
  2. https://phys.org/news/2014-03-effect-vapor-climate.html
  3.  http://theconversation.com/climate-explained-why-carbon-dioxide-has-such-outsized-influence-on-earths-climate-123064
  4. https://www.nasa.gov › topics › earth › features › vapor_warming

Moreover, Renewable Hydrogen is still very expensive compared to Hydrogen derived from fossil fuel such as coal and gas even though cost of renewable energy has reduced substantially in recent past. By injecting valuable renewable Hydrogen into existing pipeline carrying natural gas one will generate additional issues because of varying physical and chemical properties of Hydrogen and its flammability and explosive nature compared to natural gas. Only a mixture of Hydrogen 30% and natural gas 70% has been tested using gas turbines. The combustor is a critical component of the turbine and still problems like flame back firing, Hydrogen embrittlement and suitable materials of construction for 100% Hydrogen are still a long way off. The heat of combustion of Hydrogen and natural gas using pure Oxygen can be shown as below;

2H2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) > 2H2O  – 286 kj/mole

CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) > CO2 + 2H2O – 889 kj/mole

Clearly the heat of oxy combustion of natural gas is high even though the heating value of Hydrogen is high compared to natural gas. Even with 100% Hydrogen, gas turbine will emit water vapour along with Oxides of Nitrogen which is still need to be addressed. I cannot imagine using pure Oxygen for Hydrogen combustion. Combustion of Hydrogen or combustion of  a mixture of hydrogen and Natural gas will emit water vapour or a mixture of water vapour, CO2 and oxides of Nitrogen and they will not help mitigate the climate change. Imagine thousands of cars running on Hydrogen emitting water vapour! It will certainly change the climate in the shortest period because the atmosphere will be saturated with water vapour increasing the ambient temperature. The feed back effect of water vapor will enhance the global warming in presence of CO2 as shown above.

Hydrogen is an unstable atom and readily forms a bond with Oxygen and Carbon and that is why Nature does not produce free Hydrogen. It requires a Carbon backbone. Only an emission free power generation technology can solve the problem of global warming. It is only possible by recycling Carbon (Carbon recycling technology) with the help of renewable Hydrogen and to achieve a circular economy. There is no shortcut.

 

CCS (carbon capture and sequestration) and CCUS (Carbon capture, utilization, and storage) technologies are essentially “after thought” to fix the CO2 emission by 2050. It also indirectly encourages continuity of fossil fuel usage for a foreseeable future to help those industries who have invested billions of dollars in creating their infrastructures including “fracking”. Fracking generates hundreds of cubic meters of toxic effluent whose salinity is more than ten times that of the salinity of seawater. It is an environmental nightmare. Are these technologies practicable? Will they pay $100 or more for a ton of CO2 to capture and then transport hundreds of km distance to find a suitable site; and even if they pay what will be the cost implications? Certainly, their cost of production will sharply increase, which will be necessarily passed on to the consumers whether it is a power industry or oil and gas industry. Why some of the CCS projects are dormant in many parts of the world? They claim injecting CO2 into existing oil field will increase oil production. Only US companies and US governments support such schemes by way of carbon credit at the rate of $ 35/Mt to please local companies and local population. There is hardly any evidence to substantiate their “Carbon negative” claims. How many such oil fields exist in Australia, for example? The same question should be raised for all the countries around the world especially those oil importing countries like India. IEA should lead the world in energy matters by publishing necessary data to back up claims that CCS and CCUS will lead to zero emission by 2050 instead of simply following American companies claims. In the absence of such data and hard evidence and the cost and economic analysis these projections will lead us nowhere. Without imposing Carbon tax as a financial incentive (not as a penalty) will these industries embark upon such a venture? The Carbon tax cannot be less than $250/Mt (because Carbon capture from air, for example, cost more than $150 to 200/Mt depending upon the maturity of technology). Now they want to utilize capture Carbon to produce synthetic fuel with green Hydrogen. Green hydrogen is awfully expensive, renewable energy is costly and storing them is prohibitively costly and converting them to Hydrogen by electrolysis is even more expensive. Despite all these expensive measures can zero emission be achieved by 2050? The cost of green fuel will be at least 10 times more than fossil fuels currently used. Will consumers afford to pay for such high fuel cost? Many questions remain unanswered. The word “Carbon capture” implies continuity of fossil fuel. It is like tobacco industry. At least in cigarette packs there is a warning ” smoking is injuries to health” but there is no such warnings in CCS or CCUS because the “captured CO2 will be released back into atmosphere slowly at the point of usage in the near future , for example, Urea made out of captured CO2 will slowly release CO2 back into atmosphere by soil enzymes. Conversion to “concrete” or “Nano Carbon” are claimed to be potential products but only future can tell. We are talking about “billions of tons of CO2”. Only carbon recycling and circular economy will be the answer and not CCS or CCUS.

#CCS #CCUS # Carbon emission and Carbon capture # Net Zero emission.

RPC is a newly developed patent (pending) technology from Australia to generate a base load power (24 x 7) using Renewable Hydrogen and CO2 with Zero emission,

The process discloses a method and system to generate CO2 from seawater along with Hydrogen using any renewable energy source to produce synthetic methane gas known as renewable synthetic methane  gas (RSMG) to generate a base load power. The CO2 can be from various sources apart from sea such as power plants using fossil fuel, steel, cement, coke oven gas, or any syngas generated from various known methods from various sources such as steam methane reformer etc. The process can use any Oxy-combustion CO2 power cycle such as CES, Graz cycle, Allam cycle (using super critical CO2 as a working fluid) or a conventional combined cycle power plant using air combustion to generate a base load power 24 x 7 with ZERO EMISSIONS. The cost of power is estimated to be competitive even in the absence of Carbon pricing or Carbon tax. Needless to mention the unit cost of power can be further reduced by using Carbon pricing or Carbon tax. It is up to individual governments to introduce such a mechanism in order to deploy RPC on a larger scale.

The advantage with the system is it can generate electric power from RSMG with the highest electrical efficiency up to 70% while achieving Zero emissions. It effectively solves the global warming and climate changes problems using existing technologies and infrastructure without a need to develop a new power technology from scratch.

It can be retrofitted with any existing and operating fossil fuel-based power plant OR any large-scale renewable energy plant. It does not require storage batteries or any energy storing devices. The minimum viable capacity starts with 100 Mw and can be scaled up to 500 Mw and beyond and power can be exported to the grid directly through a substation. Optionally the process requires only sun and sea (ocean is the largest reservoir of Carbon, Hydrogen and heat to generate a base load power along with potable water with Zero Carbon emission and achieves circular economy).

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